Checks for plagiarism: Do Blog Hosts Do The Right Thing?

Posted on:August 27, 2010

Regular checks for plagiarism are critical in any situation where people are writing a lot. Blogs and their subscribers are a prime venue where such copying is a risk. How well do blog hosts respond when copying is identified? Informed, effective action on the victim’s part is needed to ensure action. Here are some tips on what to expect if you are plagiarized.
 
Are checks for plagiarism needed on blogs?
 
Blog hosts are internet servers which archive blog material and help manage the blogging communication process. Half a dozen huge players in the field is joined by a growing number of small ones.
 
US and EU blog hosts are governed by the Digital Millenium Copyright Act (DMCA) and the Electronic Commerce Directive (ECD). Apparently these statutes are more directed towards video and music recordings, but imply other forms of illicit copying, as well.
A blog host server should register with their nation’s copyright office. Some don’t, surprisingly.
 
Where does one find out about checks for plagiarism on a blog host site?
 
The blog hosts list a copyright policy somewhere, in doubtfully comprehensible language. Some are buried deep in the “terms of service”. If you have to search, be suspicious.
 
Whom does one contact when a check for plagiarism shows an instance of “borrowing”?
 
There should be an easy-to-find email address for the person/department responsible for blog abuse. Some blog host servers seem to hide this information. Others fail to update it, or allow it to bounce back emails when someone’s checks for plagiarism uncover a problem.
 
What does one do if checks for plagiarism turn up potential copying?
 
Sometimes, these written policies depend on the plagiarized individual performing checks for plagiarism themselves, or others who check for plagiarism when they notice suspicious similarities.
 
When a check for plagiarism turns up an instance of unattributed use, there is a procedure to follow. Different blog hosts have different procedures. Some are very easy; others are a pain!
 
For example:

  1. The person wishing to report an instance of copied work often must identify every instance of the copying. This means they must make repeated checks for plagiarism themselves.
  2. The finding of an instance of copying through checks for plagiarism may require a handwritten signature. This is an obvious problem for email, without a scanner and necessary .pdf conversion software. This requirement may contravene a statute known as the ESIGN Act.
  3. Successful checks for plagiarism must sometimes be identified with
    • URL of every instance of copying
    • character of the copying
    • contact information for victim and plagiarizer
  4. If checks for plagiarism do turn up what seems like definite theft, a Cease and Desist Letter alerts the perpetrator to stop or risk legal action. This may not be mentioned in the blog’s policy. Automation reduces the effectiveness of such correspondence.



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Cases of plagiarism Overseen By Variety of Confusing Entities

Posted on:August 27, 2010

A persistent problem with cases of plagiarism is that no one body oversees such issues. Since London first enacted copyright legislation in 1710, different cities, states, countries, institutions and agencies have exerted authority in cases of plagiarism. Accordingly, uncertainty and inconsistency persist. Additionally, some institutions and individuals may exert power where not warranted.
 
Who decides cases of plagiarism in academia?
 
Cases of plagiarism which occur in academic settings are usually under the jurisdiction of that school, college, or university. In the United States, the relevant body is generally described in publicly available documents, viewable online. A judicial committee usually handles cases of plagiarism. This group likely consists of students, faculty and administrators. It may have a name such as Honor Board.
 
Membership may be by election, perhaps by the student governing body, or by appointment or by volunteering, or some combination of all three. Membership is likely to last more than one year, since there is certainly a learning curve.
 
This writer never knew that such a group existed, and would counsel any current student to investigate membership in such a body. The experience of hearing cases of plagiarism would be most enlightening, and impressive on a resume. It would also provide opportunities to interact with faculty and students across the campus.
 
This body may meet regularly or it may only be convened when a case of plagiarism is alleged. Such entities undoubtedly feature a due process requirement, and an opportunity for appeal. Sanctions may include failing grades for a paper, a course, or a semester, delay or withholding of a degree, and of course, humiliation. Proceedings are likely to be kept confidential, however.
 
What happens when academic cases of plagiarism are not resolved within academia?
 
If a student or professor wishes to challenge an academic institution’s judicial body, the civil court system is available, at least in the USA. Several cases are recorded of courts looking at decisions made by academe. Their attitude appears to tend towards extreme reluctance to interfere with the policies of the academy towards cases of plagiarism by students. On the other hand, professorial tenure or advancement depends on publishing and being quoted. Thus, cases of plagiarism by mature scholars can destroy careers.

  • The plagiarized author is not cited when they deserve it, while the plagiarizer is potentially cited.
  • The justly accused plagiarizer loses credibility as a quotable source, possibly permanently.

Please note that not everyone thinks that courts should be involved in cases of plagiarism. See, for example, Richard A. Posner’s The Little Book of Plagiarism. He does not feel that cases of plagiarism warrant clogging up the court system. (Useful and interesting links: http://www. wcbs880. com/HARTFORD–Court-Decides-Who-Copied-Whom-in-Plagiar/6544285, http://www. rbs2. com/plag.htm ).
 
Who oversees cases of plagiarism in the post-graduate world?
 
Cases of plagiarism alleged against scholars writing and researching out in the “real world” are governed by a patchwork of organizations:


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Plagiarism Outside the Province of Copyright Infringement

Posted on:August 27, 2010

Copyright infringement, plagiarism, and fair use are distinct concepts. Sadly, anyone can sue for copyright infringement, even if not justified!
 
Copyright infringement and plagiarism are not equivalent terms. Plagiarism is unattributed copying in largely in academic contexts. Copyright infringement is a legal term for theft of intellectual property. Both are wrong. A third type of use/copying fits neither category neatly, e.g., homage, satire, in-the-style-of assignments, or fan elaboration. These are some ideas on all three issues.
 
Copyright infringement is a serious crime, punishable by fines, forced repayment of ill-gotten profits, or jail time. However, copyright infringement is not exactly the same as plagiarism. They are two different issues, and often apply in different situations, although both can be present at once.
 
Plagiarism is a term used most often in academic and scholarly circumstances. It is usually considered to be the use of words, code, or other creative or intellectual product without adequate attribution. Different fields and academic disciplines, however, impose their own standards.
 
How’s copyright infringement defined?
 
Copyright infringement is a breach of US law. It covers display of a work, including “derivative work” which the US Copyright Office defines as:

  • Based upon preexisting work(s)
  • Translation
  • Musical arrangement
  • Dramatization
  • Fictionalization
  • Motion picture version
  • Sound recording
  • Art reproduction
  • Abridgment
  • Condensation
  • Recasting
  • Transformation
  • Adaptation
  • Editorial revisions
  • Annotations
  • Elaborations
  • Other modifications

This is stunningly broad, but protects the author: (http://www. copyright. gov/title17/92chap1.html#derivative).

There are exceptions to this. “Fair use” is a legal doctrine defined in terms of the following tenets:

  1. Commercial use of copied material
  2. The character of copied work (including unpublished work)
  3. The amount of work copied
  4. Any effect of copying on market for copied work

(http://www. copyright. gov/fls/fl102. html )
(See this webpage for detailed discussion of copyright infringement: http://www. lib.uconn. edu/copyright/fairUse_understanding. html).
 
When a copyright is issued, the holder has a responsibility to defend it, or the right effectively lapses. Google chose not to copyright, instead allowing the word to enter the English language and advertise them every time it is used.
 
Clearly, most academic situations avoid copyright infringement, since plagiarizing students seldom profit. In fact, they pay dearly for the privilege of writing their term papers (or copying them!).
 
Exceptions occur! A graduate student recently sued a professor for copyright infringement of genetic research. (http://www. genomeweb. com/biotechtransferweek/stanford-grad-adds-plagiarism-gene-modification-ip-theft-suit-against-school-pro?page=show ). This is slippery stuff. Read these links; inform yourself regarding potential copyright infringement.
 
Copyright infringement potential eventually expires:
 
A proxy measure is age. Pieces written before copyright laws generally invoke no question of copyright infringement. This is the venal reason that animators use classical music. No heirs will sue for copyright infringement! Copying such older material is, however, nonetheless, plagiarism. Not attributing properly is poor scholarship.
 
Copying at the instructor’s direction is not likely to represent copyright infringement:
 
Are students assigned to model themselves on an authors’ style or format? Some professors ask request a pastiche, or alternative ending of a story, play, or poem. Clearly, no matter the pitch perfectness of a student rendering of, e.g., Millay’s poetic style, this constitutes neither copyright infringement nor plagiarism. However, discretion suggests appending an explanatory introduction or epilogue, in case of later display outside!
 

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The Detection of Plagiarism: History and Legal Implications

Posted on:August 26, 2010

The existence of plagiarism detection implies that the detection of plagiarism is a negative. This was simply not true before the 1600s. Subsequently, laws, constitutional amendments, and international statutes made plagiarism detection in commercial circumstances legally actionable. Burgeoning creativity co-existent with sensible copyright legislation vindicates such legislative efforts.
 
Did they accomplish plagiarism detection with a quill?
 
Samuel Johnson included it in his 1755 dictionary. Derived from the Latin, plagiaries, for kidnapping (as of a child or slave), it retains unpleasant overtones. The first recorded detection of plagiarism was by the Roman poet Martial of his contemporary Fidentinus!
 
The OED situates the origin of the word plagiarism in the early 17th century; a significant timing. This period includes seminal developments in Western literature and scholarship, and in national languages other than Latin. Some notables of the period include:

  • Shakespeare
  • Bacon
  • Cervantes
  • Tycho Brahe
  • Keppler
  • Lippershey
  • Galileo
  • Harvey

Does plagiarism detection arise from royal uncertainty?
 
In Stolen Words: Forays into the Origins and Ravages of Plagiarism, Thomas Mallon notes that large-scale printing changed the act of writing. He also, intriguingly, connects royal insecurity (consider kingly beheadings) to the increasing concern over creative ownership which plagiarism detection bespeaks.
 
How did 17th century plagiarism detection operate?
 
Previous to the 1600s, plagiarism detection was simply irrelevant. Liberal quoting and copying of authorities, from the Bible to Plato, was admired! Shakespeare himself has been accused of copying earlier stories. detection of plagiarism in Shakespeare’s case requires more than a computer program. Shakespeare modified ancient tales of love and heroism in idiosyncratically dramatic and novel ways.
 
Ben Johnson may be the first to whom the term plagiary was applied, in 1668. His critic, Dryden, accused Johnson of copying Horace, et alia, excessively. Presumably, Dryden’s detection of plagiarism was accomplished via his own thorough classical grounding.
 
What about detection of plagiarism in the 1700s?
 
Enlightenment science and arts freed themselves from exclusive churchly service. Novelty, innovation, and originality all acquired value. (http://www. jstor. org/pss/837018 ) Not surprisingly, perhaps, the first statute adding teeth to the detection of plagiarism, passed in 1710, in London. This did not, however, protect authors abroad. The detection of plagiarism of British books in the colonies was widely deplored.
 
In 1783, the Continental Congress passed a copyright law. Plagiarism detection thereby became a bi-continental sport. The Constitution next included copyright protection. Noah Webster, the author of the The American Speller was an early player in the detection of plagiarism and its prosecution under these new statutes.
 
How did plagiarism detection evolve subsequently?
 
The next 200 years saw plenty of plagiarism detection and accusations. Thomas Coleridge was one such accused (post-mortem). Oscar Wilde was another (to his face).
 

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Online Plagiarism Detection: How to Avoid Autoplagiarism

Posted on:August 26, 2010

The modern world of business has a lot to do with writing. Indeed, different essays, articles, research reports, and other types of writing are needed in all spheres of modern life. Therefore, it seems that the modern authors have a range of opportunities for realizing their intellectual and creative potential. However, the real situation suggests that the authors of different kinds of writings often face the risk of autoplagiarism. Thus, it is important to know the basics of online plagiarism detection and the ways of avoiding autoplagiarism.
 
Online Plagiarism Detection: Preventing Risks
 
Modern technology allows fast and secure online plagiarism detection. Specifically, there is a multitude of programs aimed at finding plagiarized word groups, lines, or paragraphs in any document. Moreover, such programs are capable of finding the sources of the plagiarism. Online plagiarism detection includes “scanning” all the websites and their content, and comparing them to the analyzed document.
 
As a result of the mentioned operations, the programs calculate the match index, which is usually given in a percentage. Interestingly, even the authors who did not use any sources for their writings sometimes get a 4-5% match index. This is likely to happen with topics which deal with general notions which are often repeated in the text or which have a particular jargon attached. This means that online plagiarism detection does not necessarily find instances of plagiarism, but it finds similar lexical units in two sources. Such coincidences are referred to as autoplagiarism.
 
Due to the high possibility of becoming a victim of autoplagiarism, writers should consider ways of avoiding such phenomenon. So what needs to be done in order to guarantee a positive report of online plagiarism detection? There are a few simple points to bear in mind:
 
Original Ideas
 
Every writer should remember that online plagiarism detection deals with preventing original ideas from being stolen. That is why the main task of the author is to produce their own ideas concerning the subject about which they are writing. In this case, the chance of autoplagiarism occurrence is much smaller.
 
Critical Thinking
 
There are topics which have been studied for centuries, but which still need investigation and further development. This suggests that there is little place for new ideas to appear. Therefore, the risk of online plagiarism detection is increased. In this case, critical thinking can be helpful. The critical analysis of the existing material will help to get new visions of the studied problems.
 
Complex Sentences
 

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Different Approaches to Punishment for Cheating in Schools

Posted on:August 26, 2010

It is a well-known fact that the staff of every college or university cooperate in order to educate and bring up the students. Similarly, it is obvious that the students in all educational establishments are often involved in plagiarism. Therefore, there is a need for a new kind of activity for teachers and authorities, namely – the control of cheating in schools. The new task of university staff is to punish the cases of cheating in schools and prevent their occurrence in the future. Therefore, it is necessary for the students to know the basic approaches to punishing the instances of plagiarism in the leading universities of the world.
 
Cheating in Schools: Approaches to Treatment
 
Cheating in schools has reached its peak point during the last 5 years. The recent studies show, that there are almost no students left, who never tried plagiarizing in their writing tasks. What is more, cases of cheating in schools happen not only in writing essays, but also in writing course works, research, articles for publications, and even dissertations.
 
Such a boom in cheating in schools caused an increase in development of programs which help to detect instances of plagiarism. The main principle of such programs is to scan the document, identifying the phrases and sentences which coincide with some phrases and sentences from other sources. However, today the task of the authorities is not only to detect the cases of cheating in schools, but also punish the students for plagiarism. Thus, the different colleges and universities have different treatment of cheating in schools. Specifically:

  • University of Phoenix, USA punishes students accused of cheating in school by giving them additional tasks, which are obligatory to be done
  • Gwinnett College, USA treats the cases of cheating in school with warnings, three of which are enough for expulsion from the college
  • Hallmark College of Aeronautics, USA applies expulsion as the only option forstudents, who plagiarizeCentral Post College, USA gives a warning for the students who cheat, and report to the parents about the case
  • Missouri College, USA gives a warning to those involved in cheating in school, and strengthenscontrol over the students
  • University of Cambridge, UK expels the students, who have a plagiarism match index of more than 2% in their work (Note, this is after scanning by a human, since AI scores are not reliable)
  • University of Oxford, UK also sends down the students who were noticed to have plagiarized
  • Carleton University, Canada gives warnings and extra tasks for the students who prove to be involved in plagiarism
  • University of Bologna, Italy expels the students who are proved to be involved in cheating in school, and deprives them of the rights to enter another university



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Academic Cheating: Definition and Proper Management

Posted on:August 25, 2010

The process of studying is aimed at elaborating, learning, and mastering information, which can be later applied in real life. However, the modern methods of studying suggest that the main purpose of students is not the gaining of real knowledge, but the acquisition of good marks. This is not necessarily done by learning. Moreover, in most cases many students eventually indulge in academic cheating. In fact, the statistics shows that only 5% of students prefer writing their own original works, while the other 97% more or less often plagiarize other works. Such instances indisputably need to be controlled by academia or by the government.
 
Academic Cheating as a Fundamental Part of Study
 
However ironic it sounds, experience shows that academic cheating is almost unavoidable in the process of writing new works. Indeed, the issue of academic cheating has been studied for more than ten years, and the results are overwhelming. As an example, the Duke University Department of Academic Integrity studied more than 50 000 students during last 5 years; and other establishments in the USA also contributed to the study. The statistical data, which varied from source to source, showed that:

  • 70%-75% of students admitted to have plagiarized different works in their academic writings
  • 50%-65% of students confessed to academic cheating in their work
  • 30%-35% of students were proven to be guilty of academic cheating
  • 5% - 10% of students claimed to have written original works during the whole study process
  • 40%-45% of teachers never reported to the authority the cases of academic cheating

The striking numbers show, that academic cheating in writing is practiced all over the world. Some students use someone else’s work due to the lack of imagination; however, most of students do not even try to write on their own. What is more, some cases of academic cheating are left undetected, and the students who are caught cheating are sometimes not even punished. Even more ridiculously, cases of academic cheating have been found not only at schools and colleges, but also in PhD papers. This points to the degrading level of the intellectual potential of modern students.
 
Academic cheating: Plagiarism laws in USA
 
Taking into consideration the growing numbers of academic cheating cases in different universities in the USA, there is an evident need for governmental control of plagiarism. However, the progress of plagiarism has a much greater pace than the progress of development of laws connected to this issue. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the legal norms of copyright and cases of its infringement. In other words, punishment needs to go beyond academia, and have real consequences.
 
The first step to eliminating the possibility of academic cheating is defining the clear features of plagiarism. Thus, the basic plagiarism laws in USA suggest that such issues can be referred to as academic cheating:


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Prosperous Business without Online Plagiarism? Impossible!

Posted on:August 25, 2010

Modern life demands a well-developed creative sense and good imagination. Moreover, the same requirements hold for activities connected to business. However, while some individuals have no problems with creativity, most people have an analytical approach to work. Therefore, they can find it difficult to use their imaginations for different projects. The only option left in this case is using someone else’s work instead of making up their own. In most cases this process involves online plagiarism.
 
Online Plagiarism in Business
 
While everyone is familiar with online plagiarism at school, only some of us know about the cases of plagiarism in business. In fact, the modern campaigns, show business, and manufacturing also have a lot to do with online plagiarism. For instance, recent studies have shown that the cases of online plagiarism in business include:

  1. Use of pictures:
    • On clothing
    • In advertisements
    • On posters
    • In public places
  2. Use of audio materials:
    • In public places
    • In video materials
    • In other audio materials
  3. Use of video materials:
    • On television
    • In public places
    • On the Internet

It is needless to say, that 80% of the mentioned uses of materials are in opposition to copyright norms. What is more, 30% of the cases, such as illegal manufacturing of T-shirts with a photo of Jennifer Lopez, are never reported or punished. This fact serves as another proof of online plagiarism as an effective tool of modern business.
 
Online Plagiarism in Copywriting, that is Creating Web Content
 
One of the modern applications of online plagiarism is in the creation of website content. Some advertisement campaigns use quotes and ideas without mentioning the name of the author, or giving any other references. In this case, the matter of plagiarism is extremely hard to define, especially if the material used is not famous or very familiar to the public. Therefore, it is not surprising, that during the last 3 years more than two hundred cases of online plagiarism were detected in the written copy. What is more, some copy materials proved to be just a paraphrasing of some other texts, with the same meaning, but in a completely different form.
 
Example: The instructions for using some gadget is described in its advertising campaign, but most of the nouns and adjectives are substituted with synonyms. In this case, there is only one original text of the instructions, which can be rewritten in a hundred of different ways. Each of these ways will serve as a new advertisement. The source match in this case is minimal, which reduces the possibility of detecting the case of online plagiarism. However, the advertisement is still formed unethically and may cross the line into illegality.
 
There are thousands of such cases, and, most frustrating, the customers fail to detect them. For instance, the statistics argue that:


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Plagiarism and Blogging: Why we need plagiarism detection tools

Posted on:August 25, 2010

“Plagiarism”, derived from the Latin idea of kidnapping, is nasty larceny. In the blogosphere, where participants’ only stock-in-trade is their creativity, instances of copying are detested heartily. Plagiarism detection tools have made it easier for writers to locate instances of stealing their work. Yet, perversely, it continues.
 
The blogosphere: too big to measure?
 
This blogger has been unsuccessful thus far in accessing publicly available hard data documenting blogosohere plagiarism’s incidence (there is tantalizing proprietary information at http://www. plagiary.org/board. htm ). Ideally, such data would include examples discovered by plagiarism detection tools, as well as by alert readers. However, 2008 estimates the blogosphere’s size worldwide reached 60 million. This is no doubt higher today, with120,000 blogs started daily.
 
The only truly reliable numbers reside with indexers and search engines (e.g., Google). They are not sharing.
 
See for yourself!
 
However, a proxy measure of scope is readily available, and without recourse to plagiarism detection tools. Diligent searching on any topic, e.g., “plants in Lakota folklore,” soon reveals apparent duplication between web pages. (Whether malicious, or even intentional, is unknowable).
 
Bloggers need to use plagiarism detection tools!
 
However, a writer needs to be vigilant in actually applying these plagiarism detection tools to protect themselves. Although imitation may be the sincerest form of flattery, most bloggers prefer to be cited correctly. Correct attribution, in addition to not triggering plagiarism detection tools, is highly desirable:

  • Increases credibility
  • Drives readership

Consequences when undetected, or when plagiarism detection tools search out the theft.
 
Plagiarism is not a victimless crime in the era of plagiarism detection tools. Any unattributed borrowing damages the victim in practical ways. Plagiarism detection tools may pick up the original post, but may not be analyzed with human understanding closely enough, to distinguish which came first. The results for the legitimate author?

  • Content blocked
  • Content deleted
  • Personal discreditation.

The argument could be made that since blogging is usually for love, not money, stealing is a trivial infraction. Nonsense! Parents nurture for love, and we recognize the value of their work. Besides, many bloggers are being paid now. They need plagiarism detection tools as surely as a keyboard. When stealing is discovered, whether by helpful readers or through plagiarism detection tools, concomitant commiserating posts and tweets proliferate.

  1. In one case, the plagiarizer’s real identity was identified by plagiarism detection tools. He was castigated publicly (at least in the hermetic space of the business blogging universe).
  2. In the other case, the injured blogger privately requested the alleged plagiarizer to withdraw. There was some doubt as to the alleged offender’s identity, a uniquely blogospheric phenomenon. This anonymity undercuts plagiarism checking software’s effectiveness.

Punishment, when plagiarism checking software has identified copying, includes:

  1. verbal scourging with the vocabulary of a less humane era
    • Links wished to be “dead”
    • “expose as a fraud”
    • “die plagiarists”
  2. Damaged business reputation
  3. Potential negative impact on firm’s or sponsor’s sales
  4. Court action, just as in print plagiarism



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Infringement of Copyright in Ignorance of Business Ethics

Posted on:August 19, 2010

Nowadays, when science and culture are at the height of their development, it seems that all the possible discoveries have been made, all possible songs have been sung, and all possible books have been written. Indeed, all the mentioned things have already been invented; moreover, all of them today are either under copyright or patent. Because of this , there are strong restrictions for the use of objects under copyright in new research, campaigns, and projects. These restrictions serve as a ground for business ethics, and the neglect of these rules is called copyright infringement.
 
Copyright Infringement: Basic notions
 
In order to avoid the infringement of copyright, it is essential to understand the definition of copyright. The Oxford dictionary defines copyright as “the exclusive legal right, given to an originator or an assignee to print, publish, perform, film, or record literary, artistic, or musical material, and to authorize others to do the same”. Thus, copyright infringement can be defined as an act of neglecting the owner’s rights to use copyrighted material without authorization. Infringement of copyright is associated with assuming the rights for some materials. However, surprisingly, most copyright infringement cases happen by chance; in other words, the accused person is usually unaware of being involved in copyright infringement.
 
Thus, it is important to realize that all the materials, mentioned in the definition of copyright, are the intellectual property of an individual or an organization ( often in the case of assignment), and one should be extremely careful while working with it. Otherwise, he/she can face a risk of being accused of infringement of copyright.
 
Copyright Infringement Vs. The Proper Use of Materials
 
In order to avoid the possibility of infringement of copyright it is important to know how to use the materials legally. The main points to bear in mind for proper use of someone’s intellectual property are that credit must be given to author. This can be dome as follows…
 
Direct Quotes with Quotation marks
 
While quoting someone’s original words in writing, it is essential to use quotation marks, signaling that the words are taken from some other source, and that they do not belong to the author of the writing in which they appear. Moreover, the quotations often need to be shortened, which may distort the initial form of the material, and by this way lead to infringement of copyright. In order to avoid this, one needs to use other symbols, such as square brackets or ellipses (…..), in places where the information had been cut out. The general rule for shortening quotations is to save the main idea of the original material and indicate where some is missing.
 
Paraphrasing
 
One of the most effective ways to avoid copyright infringement is paraphrasing. This method suggests using different lexical units and grammatical forms in order to convey the same idea. Obviously, saving the sense value of the initial message is crucial in paraphrasing. However, paraphrased ideas must still be credited to the original author. This is generally done either by adding some qualifying phrase that credits the original authors and using an intext date citation: e.g. Jeffreys says (2002) that…
 
Name of the Author
 
In cases of both paraphrasing and when using direct quotes with quotation marks, the name of the author needs to be used. If there are several authors, mentioning only one of them is treated as infringement of copyright; therefore, every owner of the copyright has to be named, or within the text one can use et. Al. and the full list is included in the bibliography. In cases of video/music material or graphics or photos being used, the names of authors and the work use have to be mentioned in the captioning data.
 

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